Uninstall or remove Gnome 3 from Ubuntu 11.04 and 10.10

Installing Gnome 3 on Ubuntu may result in breaking or removal of Gnome desktop plugins. In my case, it resulted in removal of network applet, desktop theme and it also crashed my Unity.
Installing Gnome 3 not only crashes Unity but also breaks down Ubuntu classic. If you have confronted similar problems you can very well switch back to Gnome 2.
For getting back to Gnome 2 follow the given steps. This will uninstall your Gnome 3 and activate Gnome 2 again.

In the terminal, type the following commands:

$sudo apt-get remove libgtk-3-common
$sudo apt-get install ppa-purge
$sudo ppa-purge ppa:gnome3-team/gnome3
$sudo apt-get install gnome-pane

Now reboot your system and if the Gnome 2 desktop is still missing, then type the following commands:

$sudo apt-get update
$sudo apt-get upgrade
$sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop  

And you are done!

Install Gnome 3 on Ubuntu 11.04 and Ubuntu 10.10

Gnome community has released the latest version of Gnome desktop environment, Gnome 3. Gnome 3 is available for Ubuntu 11.04 and the previous versions of Ubuntu. But installation method of Gnome 3 on Ubuntu is different for different versions of Ubuntu, as installation of Gnome 3 is different on Ubuntu 11.04 and different on Ubuntu 10.04. In this guide, we will see how to install or activate Gnome 3 on Ubuntu 11.04 and Ubuntu 10.10.

Ubuntu 11.04 and Ubuntu 10.10 come with pre-installed Gnome 2. To upgrade to Gnome 3 from Gnome 2 follow the steps given below. 

NOTE: Installing Gnome 3 will break Unity.

Steps to upgrade Ubuntu 11.04 from Gnome 2 to Gnome 3.

1) Open the terminal and type

    $sudo add-apt-repository ppa:gnome3-team/gnome3

2) Now type

     $sudo apt-get update 

3) Then

    $sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

  You will be asked to upgrade the package, type 'Y' and press Enter.

4) After all the package get upgraded, type

   $sudo apt-get install gnome-shell

You will be asked if you want to install gnome shell, type 'Y' and press Enter.

To install Gnome 3 on Ubuntu 10.10:

Open the terminal and type the following command.

1)$sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ubuntu-desktop/gnome3-builds

2)$sudo apt-get update

3)$sudo apt-get install gnome-desktop3 

That's all. Your system will be upgraded to Gnome3.

To install the Gnome 3 on Ubuntu through the graphical method that is through synaptic manager.
1) Open the synaptic manager.
2) In setting menu select Repositories option.
3) In appeared window select the other software tab.
4) Click on Add.
5) In appearing window type ppa:gnome3-team/gnome3
6) Now click on Reload button.
7) Search for Gnome-shell and install it.

Gnome 3 screenshot

And that's all your system will be upgraded to Gnome3.

NOTE : Check here to see the common error after installing Gnome 3 and its troubleshooting.

Things to remember before installing Ubuntu

If one followed the steps carefully, there shouldn't be any problem. However there are few common nuts and bolts which will make your installation a nightmare. Getting the perfect Linux installation without any error in first attempt is a rare achievement. You can have the installation without any complications if you just take care of given points -

1.Partition problems: One must empty the drive in which Ubuntu is to be installed and one must remember its size, because at the time of installation, you will see the drive name as sda1,sda2 etc. One can only differentiate if they know the partition size. The most common error is that whole hard disk gets formated.

2.Boot loader installation issue: The most common issue during installation is the corrupted boot loader installation which may show you the blank screen after installation. At that point you have to install the grub or boot loader manually. You must note down the steps to install the boot loader before installing a Linux distribution. See here to see how to install the grub from Ubuntu server CD or See the steps to install the Grub or boot loader from Ubuntu Desktop CD.

3.CD/DVD defects : One must check the CD/DVD for defects before starting the install. CD/DVD defects detecting option are available in CD/DVD when you boot from it. Also do check the MD5 or SHA checksum for the ISO images before burning.

4.Power supply : This is the point that most of the time goes unnoticed. Do make sure that power doesn't get interrupted during installation. The worst case is a power failure when bootloader is being installed. The solution is simple. Get a power supply backup and it should last long enough.

Now you are ready to get a perfect Ubuntu installation. See Here for step by step Ubuntu installation with graphics.

Open Source licenses and business models

License for Open business:
Licensing is one of the most important component of the open source model. There are several licenses but all of them share some common principles, free distribution, scope for modification, etc.

No license:
In this license, the creator of the open source software will not charge anything for distribution but has the copyright to the original code. The copyright is waived. This is a no-holds barred form of usage, users are free to do whatever they want with software that is released in this manner. This is as the base for proprietary software.

BSD License:
BSD stands for Berkeley Software Distribution and this type of software is mostly used for the operating systems, e.g. Open BSD, Apache web server. This was originally designed to release software which is the result of academic research. It gives importance to contributors and proper mentioning of credit. Commercial proprietary products can be released under this license.

GNU GPL stands for GNU General Public License. This license is created by the legendary Richard Stallman, also known as father of Free Software Foundation. It leaves no scope for commercial exploitation of code. Thus, the General Public License and its variants deter developers from modifying code and not redistributing it back into the community. Developers have to redistribute it with the same license as it was before modifying.

Mozilla Public license:
This license is quite suited to commercial purpose as the it allows for combining the original code with proprietary code and then releasing a larger work that can be commercially licensed. Such proprietary code need not to be made publicly available. The proprietary code must be distinctly separated from the original MPL code. It must interact with the original code through predefined  APIs. While at the same time all modification to the original code covered under MPL must be made publicly available.

Business models

Once you start developing with the open source, it allows for deep market penetration. Customer will pay at the point when they start earning. The most suitable example is Facebook. Facebook started with Apache and Mysql. When server patches and security issues become unmanageable, Facebook brought subscription for MySQl and paid them. When people develop open source applications and allow other to use them, they become part of the business logic, when they start making money then the developer will start making money. The business process is that when the customer is able to make money, then the developer will start making money.

Support Selling
In this model company distributes the software for free but charges for media distribution, training, support and customization. This business model is followed by most open source companies. Red Hat and Novell follow this business model.

In this business model, simply sell the products associated with the product such as books, training, manuals and compatible hardware. Products branding  accessories like T-shirts, coffee mugs, etc are also sold.

Dual Licensing
In this type of model software, vendors offer same product under different license. One is open source license and other is proprietary license. Products released under open source license are for non commercial use. Some examples are Firefox, MySql and OpenOffice. Open source version popularize the commercial one.