Ubuntu wireless not working

After installing Ubuntu some of you might see that your wireless drivers are not installed and you are unable to connect to any of the wireless networks. Some times it may happen that wireless drivers are not installed after a fresh Ubuntu installation
To get the wireless working, you need to download the wireless drivers. To get the Ubuntu Wlan drivers, perform the following steps:- 
  • Get connected to Internet through LAN.
  • Open your package manager and press reload button.
  • Now search for "bcmwl kernel" package.
  • Install the package.
  • Install the dependency package if there is any.
  • Restart your Ubuntu and you are ready to go.
If still any problem occurs, feel free to write or comment.

History of Ubuntu Linux operating system

History of Ubuntu

Many of the Ubuntu Linux users may be wondering when and how Ubuntu started and who is responsible for it. Here is a quick look at the history of Ubuntu Linux.
Ubuntu is an ancient African word meaning "humanity to others". It also means "I am what I am because of who we all are'. The Ubuntu operating system brings the spirit of Ubuntu to the world of computers.
Ubuntu  Linux was sponsored and started by the UK-based company Canonical Ltd. The owner of this company is South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth. Canonical generates revenue by providing technical support and services related to Ubuntu.

The main features of Ubuntu Linux are:
  • Ubuntu is free
  • Alternate to Windows and MAC OS's
  • Ubuntu is the most popular Linux-based OS in the world (80 million users till now)
  • Dell and Acer now offer desktops with Ubuntu
  • Firefox browser comes inbuilt
  • Thunderbird and Evolution e-mail
  • Open Office suite
  • GIMP (Photoshop-like image editor)
  • Music and Video players
  • Games too!
Canonical releases a new version of Ubuntu every six months. The very first version of Ubuntu was released in the year 1997. Each Ubuntu version name contains the year of release and the month in which it is released.
Different versions of Ubuntu released till now and their code name are-

Ubuntu 7.04 (Feisty Fawn)
Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon)
Ubuntu 8.04 LTS (Hardy Heron)
Ubuntu 8.10 (Intrepid Ibex)
Ubuntu 9.04 (Jaunty Jackalope)
Ubuntu 9.10 (Karmic Koala)
Ubuntu 10.04 LTS (Lucid Lynx)
Ubuntu 10.10 (Maverick Meerkat)
Ubuntu 11.04 (Natty Narwhal)
Ubuntu 11.10 (Oneiric Ocelot)
Ubuntu 12.04 (Precise Pangolin)

Latest Ubuntu 11.10

History of Linux operating system

Linux history

How Linux came into existence? When did it start and what is the history of Linux?
These following questions are answered here -
  • What is Unix/Linux?
  • History of Linux
  • Features Supported Under Linux
  • The future of Linux
In the 80's, Microsoft DOS was the dominated OS for PC.
Apple MACINTOSH was better, but expensive.
UNIX was much better, but even  more expensive and used only in minicomputers for commercial applications.
People were looking for a UNIX based system, which is much cheaper and can run on PC's.
DOS, MAC and UNIX were all proprietary, i.e., the source code of their kernel is protected.
No modification is possible without paying high license fees.

GNU foundation was established in 1984 by Richard Stallman, who believes that software should be free from restrictions against copying or modification in order to make better and efficient computer programs.

GNU is a recursive acronym for GNU's Not Unix.
Their aim was to develop a complete Unix-like operating system which is free for copying and modification.
Companies make their money by maintaining and distributing the software, e.g. optimally packaging the software with different tools (Redhat, Slackware, Mandrake, SuSE, etc)
Stallman built the first free GNU C Compiler in 1991. But still, an OS was yet to be developed.

A famous professor Andrew Tanenbaum developed Minix, a simplified version of UNIX that runs on PC.
Minix was used for education purposes only and not for commercial use.
In Sept 1991, Linus Torvalds, a second year student of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki, developed the preliminary kernel of Linux, known as Linux version 0.0.1.

Message from Professor Andrew Tanenbaum
"I still maintain the point that designing a monolithic kernel in 1991 is a fundamental error. Be thankful you are not my student. You would not get a high grade for such a design."
                                                              (Andrew Tanenbaum to Linus Torvalds)

Soon more than a hundred people joined the Linux camp, then thousands, then hundreds of thousands!
It was licensed under GNU General Public License, thus ensuring that the source codes will be free for all to copy, study or modify.
Linux has been used on many computing platforms like PC's, PDA's and Supercomputers.
Not only command line interface, but graphical user interface was also available.
Commercial vendors shifted to Linux to provide freely distributed code. They made their money by compiling various softwares and gathering them in a distributable format. e.g. Red Hat, Slackware, etc

Recent estimates say about 29 million people use Linux worldwide. The effects of the dot-com burst, IT slowdown and global economic recession can be clearly seen.

Free software, as defined by the FSF (Free Software Foundation), is a "matter of liberty, not price." To qualify as free software by FSF standards, you must be able to:

  • Run the program for any purpose you want to, rather than be restricted in what you can use it for.
  • View the program's source code.
  • Study the program's source code and modify it if you need to.
  • Share the program with others.
  • Improve the program and release those improvements so that others can use them.

Top 10 Ubuntu desktop wallpapers

The following top 10 desktop wallpapers for Ubuntu are from the Ubuntu 11.10 desktop version. These are all High resolution wallpapers.

Here is the list of top 10 desktop wallpapers for Ubuntu.


Install Google chrome for Ubuntu 11.10

To get Google chrome browser for Ubuntu 11.10 and higher versions of Ubuntu, download Google chrome for Ubuntu.

Select the chrome file as per your Ubuntu system and click on accept and install on Google chrome download page.

Google chrome for Ubuntu

Once the chrome file has been downloaded, go to the directory and double-click the downloaded .deb file. It will open up with Ubuntu software center.
Click on Install. Once the installation is finished, you are ready to use Google Chrome on your computer. To open Chrome in Ubuntu go to Unity and type 'Chrome' or even 'Google' and you are ready to go.

How to update or upgrade Ubuntu

Ubuntu can be updated or upgraded from synaptic manager or command line. Update or upgrade can also be done through Update manager.
To update/upgrade Ubuntu open Synaptic manager : In the synaptic manager select the reload option and it will download Ubuntu update files. After the download completes, select the option Mark all upgrades. Then another window will appear, select the Mark option and then after click on Apply option in synaptic manager.

Synaptic manager to update Ubuntu.

To update or upgrade through Update Manager : Open the Update manager and select the option 'Check'. It will check for the latest Ubuntu software and latest Ubuntu version. After that select the option Install Updates.
If the new version of Ubuntu is released then there will be an option which will say "Upgrade Ubuntu to latest version".

To update or upgrade from Ubuntu command line : Type the following commands in the terminal.

$sudo apt-get update
$sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

How to use or connect Tata Photon Plus on Ubuntu

Connecting Tata Photon Plus to Ubuntu 11.04 and above

Most of the times, Tata Photon Plus gets automatically detected in Ubuntu. But in some cases if Tata photon plus is not detected in Ubuntu then simply follow the following steps:
1. Insert the Tata photon plus in USB port.
2. Click on the Network manager icon and select "Edit connections".
3. Go to "Mobile broadband" tab and click on the Add button.
3. If the wizard shows you the name of the detected device, then bingo! Otherwise, you might need to take some extra measures to make that happen.

If the Tata photon+ is not detected then go to terminal and type the following command.

$sudo usb_modeswitch -c /etc/usb_modeswitch.d/12d1:1446

If the problem still exists then do post your queries as comments below.

Enable snow compiz effect in Ubuntu desktop

With the arrival of Unity in Ubuntu 11.04 and above, compiz is outdated and to make Ubuntu desktop fill with snow you have to use another software.
There exists a small window called Xsnow to bring snow to your desktop and create a Christmas scene. 

Xsnow can be installed from the Ubunu Center Software or open the terminal and type the following command:

$sudo apt-get install xsnow

After installation, run xsnow in a terminal by typing the following command.


Default number of snowflakes is 100 and max is 1000. It can be changed by option -snowflakes. Default delay after updating everything is 50 ms, it can be changed by option  -delay.
For example, the command below uses the maximum number of snowflakes and running as fast as possible.

$xsnow-snowflakes 1000-delay 0

For more use, read the man page of Xsnow: 

$man xsnow

Snow effect in Ubuntu desktop

How to add force quit Option in Ubuntu 11.10 in Unity launcher

Default Ubuntu force quit option is not present in Ubuntu 11.10 and with other Unity versions. To add force quit option to Ubuntu in Unity you need a different approach. There is a script which needs to be run to get Force quit option in Unity.  After running the script again you can add force quit button in Unity, using which you can stop a non responding application.

Download the script

Now follow the given steps :
1. Extract the file from the tar format.
2. In the extracted folder look for install.sh. Run the file by double clicking or running through command line.
3. Enter the password, then a nautilus folder will appear showing different shortcuts. Select the Ubuntu force quit icon shortcut and drag it to Unity launcher and you are done.

Note: The icon can be used later as well. It is located under /usr/share/applications/

Install Firefox 15 in Ubuntu 11.04 and 11.10

To install or update Firefox 15 in Ubuntu 11.04 and above versions, one has to download the code from the Mozilla Firefox site. To install latest Firefox in Ubuntu 11.04 and Ubuntu 11.10 open the terminal and type the following command.

$sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ubuntu-mozilla-security/ppa
$sudo apt-get update
$sudo apt-get install firefox

The following commands will install Firefox or if you had previous version of Firefox then it will be updated to Firefox 15.

Firefox can be installed in Ubuntu  also using Synaptic manager.
Open the synaptic manager and search for Firefox and install it.
As Synaptic manager is not installed by default in Ubuntu 11.10 see here
How to install synaptic manager in Ubuntu 11.10

Ubuntu Mac OS X theme

To get Mac-like theme for Ubuntu, we can use mac4lin or Macbuntu. But mac4lin is not supported on Ubuntu 11.10. To get the Mac appearance for Ubuntu 11.10 we will use Macbuntu. It is made to make the appearance of Ubuntu 11.10 to look like Mac OS X
So here's how to install the package for Ubuntu 11.10 to get unity as Mac OS X.

1.) Download Macbuntu for Ubuntu 10.10 from here: 


2.) Then uncompress the package and switch to Macbuntu folder:

cd ~/Downloads
$tar -zxvf Macbuntu-10.10.tar.gz
cd Macbuntu-10.10

3.) In the Macbuntu edit the install.sh :

$gedit install.sh

look for following code

    echo “”
    echo “Checking Ubuntu version…”
    s=`cat /etc/issue | grep -i “$UBUNTU”`
    if [ ! -n "$s" ]; then
    echo “Failed. System not supported, script will end here”
    echo “To ignore their compatibility with current OS try ./install.sh force”
    echo “Exiting…”
    exit 1;
    echo “Passed”

remove it with

    echo “Passed”

save it and  run it:


Mac theme for Ubuntu 11.10

Ubuntu Mac theme with Unity

Mac OS X theme for Ubuntu

13 Ubuntu quickies (Tip and tricks)

Here are 13 Ubuntu tips and tricks for you. Tips that will make your Ubuntu experience awesome. These tips are in my point of view. If some one wants to post their own tips and tricks, then just comment.. 

1. Play or Stream YouTube videos directly in Totem Movie Player : Open Movie Player, go to Edit -> Plugins and enable YouTube Browser. In the right panel, select YouTube. Now you can search for videos. It runs in full screen too. Install the video player Totem youtube plugin for H.264 for better quality.

 2. By holding the mouse over the audio files you can play that file as an overview.

 3.  One thing that bothered me when I first installed Ubuntu was the size of the icons - large they were! So if this is the case with you as well, then, open nautilus and go to Edit -> Preferences: Display icons: the default zoom level: 75%.

4.  To customize the colors in your Ubuntu, install  sudo apt-get install gnome-color-chooser which you can then find under System --> Preferences.

 5. Another recommended software is alltray. Install it by command -
$sudo apt-get install alltray
It allows you to open a program in the system tray, even if the software does not support. To do this - hit alt + F2 and type: <name_of_software_to_open> alltray and the same goes for shortcuts.

6. Get quick system information:  
$sudo apt-get install sysinfo 

7. To download youtube videos and convert them to .avi. Install -
$sudo apt-get install youtube-dl ffmpegand then - youtube-dl-o example.flv "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cdaAWc"
and to convert avi: ffmpeg-i example.flv example.avi(change the name of the video as per your wish and the link to the youtube video you want to download).

8. Many of us use gtk-recordmydesktop, which saves the screen recordings in .ogg or .ogv format but we want it in avi format, in order to do this:  
$sudo apt-get install mencoder
the run it as 
$mencoder-idx-ovc lavc example.ogg-nosound-o example.avi (that is if the file does not ogg sound).

9. To make a playlist of audio files in a folder.  ls-R > playlist.m3u

10. To kill a process by name. Type  
$sudo killall <prog_name> 
example: $sudo killall firefoxor you can kill PID (program ID): $sudo kill <pid>and see the PID:  $pidof <name of program>, for example: $pidof firefox 
(Or you can try the list of processes running with: $top)

11. To refresh the gnome panel: $sudo killall gnome-panel

12. For the software version installed: apt-cache policy <packet_name> 

13. To find out the UUID of your partitions: ls / dev / disk / by-uuid /-alh

How to install missing synaptic manager in Ubuntu 11.10

Synaptic manager is no longer pre installed in Ubuntu 11.10 and other higher versions of Ubuntu. At first sight, it might look like missing or a faulty Ubuntu installation but it can be installed in simple steps.  

Installing from software-center

Install synaptic by searching in the software-center for synaptic and clicking on Synaptic Package Manager

Installing from command line or Terminal

Open the terminal, and type:
$sudo apt-get install synaptic

Starting Synaptic

To start Synaptic, goto 

System > Administration > "Synaptic Package Manager"
If you are using the Unity interface, open the dash and search for synaptic

Synaptic manager in Ubuntu 11.10

Ubuntu torrent download

To download Ubuntu from torrent here are the links as provided by Ubuntu itself. These Ubuntu torrent links are verified by the ubuntu.org.
The link provided by one of the biggest torrent company thepiratebay.org is

This Ubuntu torrent link has been verified by the users and is safe to use.

How to install Ubuntu or dual boot Ubuntu

How to install Ubuntu on a system or dual boot Ubuntu along with Windows 7, Vistal or Xp. Here are the links that show how to install Ubuntu 11.10 and Ubuntu 11.04. Both the links follow the same process to install Ubuntu. But for readers convenience it is shown in two different post.

Install Ubuntu 11.10

Install Ubuntu 11.04

Trouble shooting after installing Ubuntu

The most common error one see after installing Ubuntu is Grub rescue or no such partition grub rescue.
This means that Ubuntu Linux grub has not been installed during Ubuntu installation and needs to be installed manually.
Grub can be rescued in two ways, either through Ubuntu Desktop CD or through Ubuntu server CD.
If the above links help, please share this page or in case of queries, please post them as comments below.

How to connect Ubuntu Linux to Dial-up network

Here are the steps to connect Ubuntu 11.04 to Dial-up network. The very similar connection procedure can be followed to other higher versions of Ubuntu.
Connection to Dial-up network can be done in two different ways -

1.  Using wvdial
      In the terminal type the following commands
     $sudo apt-get install wvdial
      and then edit the /etc/wvdial.conf
     And fill it up with settings provided by your ISP.

2. Using gnome-ppp
 Details are given in this link : http://www.debianadmin.com/setting-up-dial-up-connection-in-ubuntu.html.
Just follow them and you will be done! 

Recover root administrator password Ubuntu

If you have lost you root user password in Ubuntu and you are unable to login to your administrator account in Ubuntu, then follow the given steps to recover the password of your admin account in Ubuntu.

1) At the system startup, in the grub menu, select the recovery mode option.
2)Now type the following commands :
  $mount -rw -o remount /
  $sudo passwd
  <give password for the current user>

You will be asked to re enter the password and you are done. Your root password is changed. Cheers!

How to congifure swap partition in Ubuntu

Here are the steps to configure or edit swap space in Ubuntu. The given steps can be use to add more swap area or remove the old swap area from Ubuntu. Before that see what the swap area is.
Swap space is an area on a hard disk. Swap space temporarily holds memory pages that are inactive. If the system happens to need more memory resources or space, inactive pages in RAM are then moved to the swap space therefore freeing up that RAM space for other uses.

Steps to add more swap area to existing swap -

1. Create a partition in the hard disk which will be used as swap area.

2. Let us say I have to add /dev/abc as swap
    Now to make it as swap,
    $mkswap /dev/abc
    Now activate it as swap,
    $swapon /dev/abc

Steps to remove the swap area from the Ubuntu.

Open the terminal and type the following command.
$swapoff  /dev/abc

 where, /dev/abc is the name of the current swap area.

If you want to add at boot time place an entry in fstab

To view how many swap portions are there,

$vim /proc/swaps